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- 1 HELICOPTERS FOR SALE
- 1.1 New helicopters for sale
- 1.2 How to choose the helicopter?
- 1.3 What helicopter to choose?
- 1.4 What there is a price of the helicopter of?
- 1.4.1 Helicopters in leasing.
- 1.4.2 Maintenance of the helicopter.
- 1.4.3 Storage of the helicopter.
- 1.4.4 Purchase of the resource helicopter.
- 1.4.5 Cost of the resource helicopter.
- 1.4.6 From whom to buy the helicopter.
- 1.4.7 Where to buy the helicopter.
- 1.4.8 Whether long to wait for delivery?
- 1.4.9 The helicopter is bought. What’s next?
- 1.5 What it is better to choose – the plane or the helicopter?
- 1.6 Direct costs on technical operation of helicopters.
- 1.7 What is the helicopter?
- 1.7.1 Word history – the helicopter.
- 1.7.2 Basic principles of operation of the helicopter.
- 1.7.3 Control of helicopter.
- 1.7.4 Advantages and shortcomings of the helicopter.
- 1.7.5 Classification of helicopters:
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How to choose the helicopter?
The answer to this question depends on tasks which you plan to solve by means of the aircraft.
If you need the helicopter for private flights, pay attention to light air cars of the Robinson company. R44 and R66 are among the most economic aircraft. R44 accepts aboard four people, and R66 ‒ five. The Robinson helicopters can be used as means of individual air transport, and for professional activity.
If more capacious helicopter is necessary for you, pay attention to universal aircraft of the Airbus Helicopters company: H125 (before AS350B3) – the most popular and the helicopter of the manufacturing plant Airbus Helicopters, H130, H135, H145 which is widely used around the world and heavier helicopters of this producer. For example, Airbus Helicopters H125 accepts aboard 5-6 passengers, and H175 – up to 18 people.
You plan to use the helicopter for regular passenger traffic, performance of air works or as cargo transport? It is possible to discuss compliance of concrete types of helicopters to your purposes and tasks with our experts.
What helicopter to choose?
If to compare purchase of the car and purchase of the helicopter, then there are both distinctions, and the general moments. As well as the car, the helicopter can be bought both new, and former in the use. By the way, the helicopter which was already operated earlier is called resource. There is also the third option – acquisition of a so-called kit-set, that is a set of knots and units, including the engine, intended for independent assembly. It is possible to bring together him most, or to entrust assembly to professionals in the service center.
To go and buy the new helicopter at once it will turn out not always. As a rule, new helicopters are delivered under the order. So, the American Robinson R44 helicopter, popular in Russia, it is necessary to wait for from 3 to 6 months, the French Eurocopter EU-130 T2 – up to one year. However, official dealers always have own, in advance ordered helicopters with close delivery time. As for the resource helicopter, its advantage that it is not necessary to wait for it. Therefore the helicopter age costs 1–3 years almost like new. But also further the price of cars falls rather slowly.
Besides, it is necessary to choose between the piston helicopter and gas-turbine. Its low fuel inquiries will be plus of the first. Piston Robinson refuels aviation gasoline, but use also automobile high-octane gasoline, the main thing that quality of fuel did not bring. Gas-turbine helicopters fly on aviation kerosene, and it is significantly more expensive. In addition at the choice it is necessary to consider the purposes for which the helicopter is bought. Piston cars are intended first of all for the amateur pilots flying for the sake of own pleasure. Gas-turbine assume flights in various weather conditions and high intensity of operation. But they also are significantly dearer.
Upon purchase of the helicopter the mass of indicators – the weight of the car and its profitability, the number of engines, screws, seats is considered.
Helicopters with the injector engine (Robinson R44) it is more favorable from the economic point of view, with gas-turbine Agusta AW119 Ke, Robinson R66) easier and more powerfully, but is more complex in management.
Two-engine (Agusta Bell 429, Agusta AW 139) it is safer, but is more expensive single-engine (Agusta AW119 Ke, Bell 407).
Easy helicopters (Agusta Bell 429, Bell 206, Agusta GRAND) are characterized with a take-off weight from 1 to 4,5 tons, average – to 13 tons (Agusta AW 139, Eurocopter EC-175, Eurocopter EC-225 Super Puma). Division of helicopters into average and heavy in Russia and foreign countries is unequal therefore some helicopters in the West will be defined as heavy, and at us they will be considered as averages.
The majority of helicopters, popular in Russia, have 6–8 passenger seats, but there are also exceptions. For flights of the small companies it is convenient four-seater Robinson R44, and onboard Agusta AW 139 dozen of passengers will be located.
At the choice of the helicopter its price which very differs depending on the chosen model remains an important factor. The cost of the easy multi-purpose Robinson helicopters begins from $617 500, modern high quality Agusta AW 139 is reached by €14 160 000.
To the main cost THAT which only the specialized centers having the certificate on service of concrete types of helicopters can carry out is added on.
The cost of servicing is rather low. For example, annual service of Robinson R44 (in each 50 flight hours) will make about 9 thousand dollars. In many services to you not only will make survey or repair of equipment, but also will help with delivery of necessary spare parts or accessories.
Thinking to buy the helicopter directly from the producer, consider that not all helicopters are certified in our country, so there is a probability to buy the car and not to have an opportunity on it to fly. Therefore before purchase surely consult at experts.
How much does a helicopter cost?
Helicopter cost in many respects depends on its complete set and modification. Popular Robinson R44 can have different engines, metal chassis or floats for water landing, is completed with the equipment for flights in night-time. The price of the Robinson R44 helicopters begins from $617 500. Inexpensive, but reliable. Differs in the low cost of service and he is well familiar to our handymen.
Time in two purchase of his successor – five-seater Robinson R66 will be more expensive. The easy and average Italian Agusta helicopters, it is equal as the American Bell, will facilitate your purse not less than for 4,3 million dollars.
Wealthy clients will pay attention to Bell 429 ($8 670 586) continuing to work even at malfunction of one engine. In a basic complete set he uses for landing of a ski, but can be equipped with the cleaning-up wheels chassis at the expense of what helicopter speed will increase.
Modern comfortable Agusta AW 139, worth from €14 160 000, differs in high technical rates and a class of safety, low noise level and vibrations.
What there is a price of the helicopter of?
factory retail price of the Robinson R44 or R66 helicopter in a basic complete set or with additional options at choice of the customer
the cost of the minimum set of the obligatory equipment for operation in Russia and the countries of the former CIS (a so-called Russian package) consisting from:
- L.T. Kannad 406 AF;
- Heated Pitot Tube;
- Meter Altimeter;
- Artificial Horizon w/slpskd;
- the cost of packing of the helicopter at manufacturer;
- aircraft insurance cost at its export transportation;
- cost of transportation of the helicopter. Two options:
- by sea (cheaper, longer);
- by plane (more expensively, quicker);
- customs duty;
- customs duty;
- expenses on services of the customs broker;
- transportation of the helicopter to the place of its continuous basing at the client;
- helicopter insurance when transporting across the Russian Federation, assembly and flight;
- assembly after export transportation and control flight of the helicopter;
- services in registration of the helicopter and obtaining certificate of the flight validity.
Helicopters in leasing.
Helicopters for airlines act as the main means of production. As it is expensive assets with the price in many tens, and even hundreds of millions dollars, many airlines are preferred or are forced not to buy helicopters in property, and to take them in leasing, financial or operational.
Financial leasing, with a number of reservations, represents installment sale, at the same time throughout leasing term the helicopter remains on balance of the leasing company, and after its end carries over carrier or is redeemed at residual cost.
Operational leasing, also with a number of reservations, represents rent of the helicopter; upon termination of its term the helicopter continues to remain, as well as was, in property of the leasing company. The contract of financial leasing is usually signed for 15 years, and operational – for five years. At operational leasing the airline can cut down the expenses on 15-20% as does not redeem the helicopter. In general it is more flexible tool allowing airlines to maneuver more quickly the carrying capacities in case of approach of changes in the market.
Operational leasing is more widespread for typical assets as, for example, it is more difficult to lease a unique object, and then to return and transfer to another. And for cars, the rolling stock and aircrafts it is quite usual situation as each similar asset quite corresponds to the type. In a case with helicopters a part is played also by that circumstance that they are operated by strictly certain and rigidly followed rules, technical condition of the helicopter and all works with it are documented so the lessor always has a clear understanding of how the asset in what state it is supported is operated it and what has residual cost. As lessors recognize, transactions at present become more risky, and here it is necessary to emphasize a basic difference between financial and operational leasing. In the first case the main risks are concentrated on the lessee.
The majority of bargains is concluded according to the scheme of so-called returnable leasing (SLB, Sale-Leaseback). In the typical transaction the SLB airline itself orders helicopters from the producer according to the requirements, makes all advance payments, but when delivery time comes, sells the ordered helicopters of the leasing company and takes them from it in leasing. The company usually gets out following the results of the tender – who will offer smaller leasing rates. Actually the role of the leasing company in the transaction of SLB comes down to attraction of whenever possible cheaper long-term credits, leverage in such transactions reaches 90-95%. It is no wonder that subsidiaries of the largest Russian banks which had good credit ratings and access to the international financial markets could progress in the competition to the foreign leasing companies not bad. Transactions of SLB are attractive at a steady condition of the market, besides at large volumes of financing they have a small margin for the leasing companies. At the same time financial reliability of airline lessee acts as essentially important criterion, if the carrier is insolvent, will not be able to pay and will return the helicopter of the leasing company, it will have a serious problem on search of the new customer, and the helicopter will stand and yield huge losses at this time.
Usually operational leasing is meant as so-called dry (dry) leasing – the airline leases the helicopter, but at the same time provides it with own crew, maintenance and an insurance. In this case the airline rents the helicopter together with crew, the lessor is responsible for technical condition of the helicopter and an insurance too. It is the most flexible type of leasing allowing airlines very quickly within a season, to increase carrying capacities or, on the contrary, temporarily to get rid of surplus.
Maintenance of the helicopter.
If you plan to fly or you fly much, you carry out servicing of the helicopter on a raid. At rare departures – according to the schedule diagram. Depending on the model it can be made poagregatno or all helicopter at once.
The Robinson helicopters are simple and economic in service. In each 50 flight hours at the same time carry out THAT both the engine, and a glider. Cost will make it about $500, servicing of 100 hours – about $4000. In 2200 flight hours or 12 years the helicopter will need capital repairs.
The maintenance of expensive models of helicopters is higher: 8 000–15 000$/year THAT plus expenses on fuel.
Costs for contents depend also on the place of storage of the equipment. That it will be – a lawn at the house or the warm closed hangar.
To reduce the cost of the contents of the helicopter and even to get profit, lease it.
Storage of the helicopter.
For storage of the helicopter it is the most convenient to use the open area near a country house or to erect own hangar. Modern technologies allow to build a strong, but easy design in installation/dismantle.
As the helicopter does not need a runway, unlike the plane, it is possible to store it houses. Certainly, if it is a country house. But for this purpose it is required to register the helipad. The equal ground of 35 by 35 meters is for this purpose necessary. And at the rate of take-off at an angle 45 degrees should not be any obstacles. It is possible to store also on helicopter aerodrome. Depending on a type of storage, street or hangar, and the list of the accompanying services also the storage price will depend. As well as the plane, the helicopter in intervals between flights can be leased that can pay back its storage and service.
In the absence of an opportunity to equip own platform base the helicopter on one of helicopter aerodromes, having chosen for it the place on open space, in not heated or heated hangar.
Purchase of the resource helicopter.
To buy the new high quality helicopter it will turn out only to order. Sometimes the term of expectation of purchase stretches up to 2 years. Sometimes there is no time or desire to wait. Frighten off the prices and attracts a thought that for the same money it is possible to buy the second-hand equipment, but higher level.
Timely repair and high-quality servicing give to the resource helicopter the second life. But to be confident in safety of flights, buy second-hand helicopters only from reliable partners, those who value the reputation and life of the clients. Or use company services to which you trust, on pre-sale diagnostics of technical characteristics of the car with obligatory delivery of a guarantee.
Cost of the resource helicopter.
If flight hours are not enough and from the moment of release of the helicopter there passed less than 3 years, its cost will strongly not differ from new. If you want that the price was noticeably below, then look for the helicopter is more senior 3 years.
Helicopters do not wear out as quickly as a car. At competent, timely servicing it will serve long.
From whom to buy the helicopter.
Purchases the official, certified dealers of producers can guarantee quality only (domestic or foreign). It is a little of them.
After found the potential seller, try to learn about him everything that is possible.
Read responses on the official site and in blogs, take an interest in existence of certificates from the producer (as dealer, and on servicing).
The large, serious companies are engaged not only in sale of helicopters, but also servicing, repair, provide to owners of helicopters services in basing, registration of platforms or helicopters, training.
Where to buy the helicopter.
Directly from the manufacturing plant to buy the car it will not turn out as the foreign companies prefer to sell helicopters through dealer networks.
Behind purchase of the helicopter it is possible to go the abroad or to issue the order at the Russian dealers. Purchase in Russia will be a little more expensive, but will save you from paperwork. Official dealers will undertake execution of all documents on a customs clearance and registration of the helicopter. The third option – unsafe and risky – purchase according to the announcement.
Whether long to wait for delivery?
In the large companies there are always available several helicopters of the popular, demanded models waiting for the buyer. Information on them changes in the Real time mode therefore, having planned purchase, ring round dealers for specification of the range.
At execution of the purchase order of the helicopter from the manufacturing plant waiting time will make of half a year up to 2 years.
The helicopter is bought. What’s next?
To define the place of basing of the helicopter, to register the helipad, to receive driving lessons.
At acquisition of the helicopter at the large dealer a pleasant bonus to purchase is guarantee servicing. If bought the helicopter according to the announcement, it is necessary to find the company having certificates from the producer on THAT helicopters of brand necessary to you.
What it is better to choose – the plane or the helicopter?
There is no definite answer to this question. These are two different aircraft similar according to the destination, but the having number of distinctive features. Your choice will depend on what purpose you before yourself set what problems you plan to solve with the help of this or that device.
Let’s consider both options. And the choice will remain for you.
The subject of helicopters and planes has quite extensive character. As our portal is focused on owners of the private equipment, we will speak about easy types of aircrafts.
So, helicopter or plane?
The helicopter is irreplaceable in various situations. It is mobile, can hang in air, move in any direction. Take off and landing does not require airfield, only the small open area the size in one and a half diameters of the screw is necessary. The helicopter can be put on the coast of the gulf, the lake, on the island, on the plateau. However, to make it in the winter very difficult as places such are not cleared away and it is unknown what can be under snow. Also he can be put even on own seasonal dacha if the area allows. Speed of flight of the helicopter not too high (in comparison with plane). Average range makes 220 – 250 km/h. The helicopter demands big fuel expenses. Average flying range by helicopter about 600 km. It is difficult to carry out the procedure of refueling too as the certified specially equipped car or specially equipped platform is for this purpose necessary. Buying the helicopter, it, mostly, use as a convenient type of transport. Ideal option for flights to the country and business flights on small distances.
Take off and landing of the plane requires existence of airfields with which, unfortunately, at the moment in our country, to put it mildly, a problem. But it can be solved by means of acquisition of a seaplane or the amphibian, then the surface of the water will serve as an alternative to airfield. Planes can gather higher speed and demand smaller fuel expenses. Average speed at light screw planes from 150 to 350 km/h. Can overcome long distances, are suitable for distant routes between the cities. Flying range of this equipment reaches 900 – 1500 km. Planes, except transportation function performance, are bought for the sports, amateur purposes, for performance of aerobatic maneuvres.
Influence of meteoconditions.
Both planes, and helicopters are exacting to weather conditions. It is necessary to consider vertical and horizontal visibility, abundance of rainfall, possible thunder-storms and snow charges. It is also necessary to remember time of day as the majority of light planes and helicopters is intended for visual flights in the afternoon. The helicopter is less susceptible to values, can reduce in certain cases the flight speed, height or, for safety, even to make landing to the platform chosen from air. The plane has a certain minimum speed of flight which is rather high. In northwest latitudes the helicopter will be more advantageous option as quite often there is cloudy weather.
Planes it is simpler in management. But their landing is made more difficult. Here exact calculation, a soft contact is necessary. The helicopter in management is difficult.
To operate this or that type of the equipment, it is necessary or to involve the professional pilot, or to learn to pilot most. It is required to complete a course (theoretical and practical – 42 hours of a raid), to receive the certificate of the amateur pilot. A practical course – an important part in the course of training. Only during flights, at first with the instructor, then independent, the skill of piloting is developed. Every flight hour this skill is acquired better. But flights have to take place according to a certain schedule, long breaks between flights will not bring benefit. Not less than 1-2 times a week, in the sum – not less than 2 flight hours are recommended to fly. Отлетав more than 20 flight hours, at successful training, you will be able already to try to fly independently. Such flights help to master all subtleties of process of piloting much better. Training demands financial expenses, and its cost differs depending on the type of vessel chosen by you. The price of training depends on the cost of flight hour, that is expenses on fuel and operational costs of aero club, the instructor’s salary. The average price of training of the pilot of the light plane about 10 000 Dollars, on the pilot of the helicopter about 15 000 Dollars.
Expenses on purchase and operation.
Helicopter cost quite high. For example, the price of the popular Robinson R44 model of 2001 of release makes about $200 000, and models of 2011 – about $320 000. The cost of the helicopter of the American Bell brand which proved in the market model 206 makes $350 000 – $450 000. The EC 120 model of the Eurocopter brand of 2002 of release will cost you in the sum about $685 000. These are approximate figures. The cost of each separate car will depend on brand, model, year of release, terms of its operation and some other factors.
Purchase of the plane will cost to you cheaper. Its cost will also depend on brand and model, year of release and the period of operation of the vessel. The approximate price, for example, makes models 172SP of the Cessna brand of 2002 $100 000. The Cirrus SR22 planes of 2001 – 2002 of release cost about $95 000-105 000. The model of popular Piper Seneca V of 2001 can be bought for $290 000. It is possible to buy also older plane if its technical characteristics at the good level. For example, Cessna-150 of the 60th years in will cost 30 000 – 35 000 c.u.
Use and that, and other aircraft demands certain operational expenses which also as well as the cost of the device significantly differ. The sum of operational costs on the helicopter quite high. For example, the cost of flight hour of EC-120b of the Eurocopter brand (without fuel and fee of the pilot and the technician) – $250. Planes are less expensive in this plan. But it is quite difficult to give some figures even if approximate as expenses on this or that transport are especially individual. They will depend on the frequency of use of the vessel, therefore, of expenses on fuel and charges for a landing and the parking of planes in airfields, necessary scheduled works, possible replacements of certain details, the cost of basing and some other the moments.
Before doing this or that acquisition, it is necessary to test both types of transport. To do some flying, direct, understand where you feel more comfortably to what your soul lies. To estimate a financial condition of your budget. And then already to make the final decision and to start purchase implementation.
High operational costs stand the main obstacle in a way of expansion of use of helicopters. In comparison with turbo-propeller planes identical dimension, costs of 1 passenger-kilometer at helicopters in 10 times more. At helicopters depreciation is higher, it is more than costs of maintenance and repair, of spare parts and, as a result, on insurance. Besides, because of the considerable duration of performance THAT also is significantly lower than limited service life at helicopters efficiency, and, at last, transportations on small distances are ineffective. Already today low operational characteristics “eat” all efficiency and adversely affect safety of flights.
What there are expenses on operation of?
Usually direct operational costs (Direct operating cost – DOC) are divided into five main components: expenses on depreciation; insurance; maintenance and repair; crew; fuel. As a rule, producers include the last three components, but for helicopters it is necessary to consider all five.
Unlike the plane at which the lion’s share of expenses (nearly 50%) is the share of crew and fuel, at the helicopter – only 10%. And nevertheless, helicopters have opportunities for decrease in costs of crew: performance of flights as a part of one crew member thanks to simplification of the equipment and decrease in working loading. As for expenses on fuel, this use of more economic engines, increase in aerodynamic characteristics, optimization of parameters of the bearing system.
Let’s consider three main components.
Expenses on depreciation depend on the following factors: initial capital investments, operation duration (service life) and residual cost.
Costs of depreciation = (initial capital investments – residual cost) / (operation duration – a number of hours in a year).
It is clear, that for reduction of depreciation expenses it is necessary to minimize initial capital investments and to maximize duration of operation and intensity of use.
Initial capital investments are defined by cost of production, deceleration of power of the power plant and onboard radio-electronic equipment, volumes of spare parts, costs of training of flight and technical structure and financing of providing the beginning of operation. The main thing – clever financial policy in the choice of necessary flight and technical properties, increase in durability and intensity of use (the helicopter has to fly for 1000 hours a year) due to reduction of idle times, forecasting of technical condition and preliminary scheduling, increase in universality, etc. So, low depreciation is the competent choice on the basis of the widest offer supported with high intensity of application.
With expenses on insurance everything is clear. Usually the size of an insurance of the helicopter makes 7% a year. Because of small raids of helicopters, about 1/3 costs of 1 hour of a raid are spent for insurance.
Expenses on maintenance and repair – a headache of any operator of helicopters. The biggest contribution to expenses on maintenance and repair brings the engine, further there are a glider, screws, transmission and the equipment.
If low operational technological effectiveness of our rotary-wing aircrafts is compensated by surplus of technical shots, periodic works involving all hands, high professionalism and unpretentiousness of workers, then from expenses on spare parts and units not to hide.
How many there are main units, will consider on the example of our heaviest and, therefore, the helicopter most expensively. At once has to make a reservation that the price in each case can differ, but the general tendencies of formation of expenses of operators, are defined by the income of the suppliers (producers, repairmen, dealers, etc.) following one principle: “buy cheaper, sell more expensively”.
Direct costs on technical operation of helicopters.
Direct maintenance costs (DMC) – direct costs on technical operation (maintenance and repair) are total expenses on scheduled works, repair and spare parts on all life cycle of the helicopter (20000 hours) given by 1 o’clock flight.
At first, these figures pay off at a development stage and then are annually specified on the basis of real expenses on maintenance and repair of aircraft which are in operation.
Direct costs on technical operation of helicopters depend on a set of factors, are basic of which: intensity of use, resistance to conditions of application and price policy of producer. Direct costs on technical operation show only the expected costs of maintenance and repair as there are no methods guaranteeing share of participation of the producer.
There are real statistical data, but they vary depending on application conditions (intensity of application, duration of flight tasks and local climatic conditions).
For receiving reliable figures on Direct costs on technical operation the leader of world helicopter engineering of Eurocopter (EC) organized feedback with the park of the helicopters. Results the job of 18 civil and military operators covering all number of production were got: EC120B, EC135 and Ecureuil, EC145, family of “Dolphins” and “Super Pumas”. Each of operators has not less than 5 helicopters and annual TTAF more than 5000 hours.
The producer and customers came to the agreement that customers will regularly provide data on works which they performed by the helicopters (scheduled works, repair, replacement of units), and the EU, in turn, will collect, to analyze and once a year to issue the report in which to compare direct costs on technical operation of helicopters to other operators.
In a case with Ecureuil, “Dolphins” and “Super Pumas” expenses were estimated on the basis of the general annual TTAF of 50000 hours and even more.
It should be noted what at the EU, as well as his competitors, figures on direct costs on technical operation is information for office use which reveals for direct customers during negotiations.
For assessment of Direct costs on technical operation of the EU, the existing helicopter number of the EU can be divided into two categories. Ecureuil, “Dolphin” and “the Super Puma” who already reached technical “maturity” entered the first. Their Direct costs on technical operation strongly depend on price policy of producer.
Other category, EC120B, EC135, and EC145 for which direct costs have to be cut down for technical operation even in process of improvement of a design of the helicopter and its systems.
There should not be doubts that the producer of helicopters operates only one third of Direct costs on technical operation as two others – fall on the power plant and the equipment. As a rule, the producer of helicopters demands from suppliers of engines and avionics of optimization of those characteristics which define direct costs on technical operation.
How direct costs on technical operation change?
In recent years Direct costs on technical operation influenced decrease two factors. First, when developing new designs began to pay more attention to expenses on maintenance and repair from the very beginning of development of the program. Secondly, use of perspective materials and widespread introduction of displays in a crew cabin significantly cut Direct costs on technical operation.
Calculations of expenses including Direct costs on technical operation, also the American consulting firm Conklin & De Decker is engaged. Twice a year this company, independent of producers, issues the report. It obtains the main part of information directly from operators who are based in North America. Four years ago the EU and Turbomeca provided to Conklin & De Decker free access to the data on Direct costs on technical operation.
Comparison of Direct costs on technical operation of helicopters – competitors are given in the table:
|Eurocopter helicopter||Bell helicopter||PTER|
|AS350B2||Bell 206L4||– 2%|
|AS350B3||Bell 407||– 18%|
|EC135||Agusta A109 Power||+2%|
Comments – direct costs on technical operation of AS350B2 and V3 it is better than the direct competitors, respectively for 2% and 18%. EC120B and EC135 the concede to competitors, one of the reasons experts call more perfect equipment which is installed on these models.
What is the helicopter?
The helicopter — the rotary-wing aircraft which has carrying power and draft, necessary for flight, are created by one or several bearing screws with the drive from the engine or several engines.
The helicopter in modern understanding of this word before war carried the name “gelikopter”. This word was borrowed from French (фр. hélicoptère) at the end of the 19th century. In French, in turn, the word is created from Greek roots (other – Greek ἕλιξ, a genitive case ἕλικος “a spiral, the screw” and πτερόν “wing”).
Word history – the helicopter.
Most likely, the word “helicopter” was created on similarity of the French “gyroplane” (having the same value and existing since 1907) the same as by analogy with “aéroplane” (then still occurring in French), “plane” was thought up. That is, the first element corresponds to French “gyro -“, ascending to other – Greek γῦρος.
Basic principles of operation of the helicopter.
Unlike wings of the plane of the blade of the bearing screw of the helicopter are not parallel to the coming air stream, and at an angle which is called an angle of attack or the angle of installation of blades.
Almost always the bearing screw of the helicopter is equipped with automatic machine of a distortion which for flight control provides the shift of the center of pressure of the screw in case of hinged connection of blades or inclines the plane of rotation of the screw in case of semifixed connection. The distortion automatic machine usually rigidly connects to the axial hinge for change of an angle of attack of blades. In schemes with three and more bearing screws the automatic machine of a distortion can be absent.
Helicopter blades as a rule in all modes of flight rotate with the fixed frequency, increase or reduction of power of the bearing screw depends on a screw step.
Rotation is usually transmitted to the screw from one or two engines through transmission and a power shaft to the bearing screw. At the same time there is a jet moment which seeks to twirl the helicopter opposite to rotation of the bearing screw aside. For counteraction to the jet moment, and also for traveling management either the steering device, or pair of synchronized screws rotating diversely is used.
As the steering device the vertical steering screw on the end of a tail beam is traditionally used, use the steering screw in the ring channel less often – фенестрон, is even more rare the NOTAR system based on Koanda’s effect.
The NOTAR system consists of a hollow hvostvy beam which basis has a propeller for creation of necessary pressure, the operated cracks along a beam surface, and a rotary nozzle for traveling management on the end of a beam. The air which is coming out the operated cracks creates different speeds on a surface of a tail beam. Under Bernoulli’s law on that part of a surface where the speed of course of a boundary air bed is more – less than pressure of air. Because of a difference of pressure of air upon the parties of a tail beam there is necessary force directed from the site with big pressure to the site with smaller pressure. (an example of such helicopter — MD 500).
Also there are options with an arrangement of the steering screw on a helicopter wing, at the same time the screw not only counteracts the jet moment and participates in traveling management, but also creates the additional draft directed forward, unloading thereby the bearing screw during flight.
When using pair of synchronized, opposite rotating screws, the jet moments are mutually compensated, at the same time additional power from engines is not required. However such scheme considerably complicates a helicopter design.
In case the screw is given to rotation by the jet engines fixed on blades, the rotating moment is almost not noticeable.
For unloading of the bearing screw at great speed the helicopter can be equipped with rather developed wing, also plumage can be applied to increase in traveling stability.
When the helicopter flies forward, the blades moving forward have high speed concerning air, than moving back. As a result one of half of the screw creates big carrying power, than another, and arises the additional heeling moment. At the same time a half of the screw with the coming blades in relation to the running air stream under the influence of this stream to seek to make a wave up in the horizontal hinge. It in the presence of rigid contact with automatic machine of a distortion leads to reduction of an angle of attack and, therefore to reduction of carrying power. On other half of the screw of the blade are much under the smaller pressure of air, the angle of installation of blades increases, increases also carrying power. This simple mechanism reduces influence of the heeling moment. It should be noted that on the receding blades under certain circumstances failure of a stream can be observed, and trailer sites of the coming blades can overcome wave crisis when passing a sound barrier.
Besides, for improvement of stability during flight, increases in the maximum speed and loading capacity apply additional wings (for example, on MI6 and partially on Mi-24 — at this helicopter the role of additional wings is carried out by poles of suspended weapon). At the expense of additional carrying power on wings it is possible to unload the bearing screw, to lower the general step of the screw and to reduce intensity of effect of a kreneniye a little, however on the hanging mode wings create the additional resistance to the descending air stream from the bearing screw, thereby reducing stability.
The bearing screw creates the vibration menacing with destruction of a design. Therefore the active system of clearing of the arising fluctuations is in most cases applied.
At failure of engines the helicopter has to have an opportunity to land safely on the autorotation mode, i.e. in the mode of self-rotation of the bearing screw under the influence of the running air stream. For this purpose almost all helicopters, except for jet, are supplied with the coupling of a free wheeling which in case of need separates transmission with the bearing screw. Landing in the mode of autorotation turns out operated, but it is considered emergency operation: the established decrease speed at easy helicopters from 5 m/s, and at heavy to 30 m/s and more — without sharp “zatyazheleniye” of the screw before collision with the earth such landing differs from falling a little.
Characteristics of the helicopter depend on air pressure, in particular on flight altitude, air temperature, humidity.
Control of helicopter.
Management on a list and pitch by the majority of the existing helicopters is carried out by means of cyclic change of an angle of installation of blades (step) of the bearing screw called by a cyclic step by means of the distortion automatic machine. At change of a cyclic step the moment inclining the helicopter therefore the vector of draft of the bearing screw deviates in the set direction is created. On konvertoplana control is exercised in a plane way. Other methods of management on a list and pitch are also possible, but they are not applied by the existing helicopters.
Management on roving differs depending on the aerodynamic scheme of the helicopter and can be realized by means of the steering screw (at helicopters of the classical scheme), differences of the general step of screws (at twin-screw helicopters), by means of a jet nozzle (at helicopters with jet system), and also at the horizontal movement by means of vertical plumage.
For management of a cyclic step in a cabin of the helicopter the vertical handle is installed. Its deviation provides management on pitch, forward/back to the left/to the right — on a list. For change of the general step of the bearing rotor (respectively, the carrying power of the helicopter) the step gas handle rejected up under the left hand of the pilot is used. Control on roving is exercised of pedals.
Advantages and shortcomings of the helicopter.
The main advantage is ability to make take off and landing down — the helicopter can land (and to fly up) in any place where there is a flat platform the size in one and a half diameters of the screw.
Also their maneuverability: helicopters are capable to lag in air and even to flight “back to front”.
Besides, helicopters can transport freight on an external suspension bracket that allows to transport very bulky freights, and also to perform installation works.
The main shortcoming inherent in all rotary-wing equipment — not really high (smaller maximum) the speed of flight and raised (in comparison with planes) a fuel consumption (high specific fuel consumption and, as a result — higher cost of flight per passenger-kilometer or unit of mass of the transported freight).
(In comparison with planes) it is possible to refer to shortcomings of helicopters also complexity in management.
At helicopters with the jet drive of the bearing screw landing to autorotation (at shutdown of engines the big front resistance of gondolas of engines quickly stops the bearing screw), also high noise and a big visibility (from torches of engines) both extremely high and inefficient fuel consumption sharply becomes complicated.
Classification of helicopters:
Helicopters usually divide according to the aerodynamic scheme, on loading capacity, to destination.
Classification by the aerodynamic scheme.
The single-screw with the steering screw. For compensation of the jet moment the steering screw creating draft in the direction of rotation of NV is used. Traditionally this scheme is called “the classical scheme”. According to this scheme the majority of the existing helicopters is constructed;
The single-screw with a jet control system. For compensation of the jet moment the control system of a frontier layer on a tail beam and a jet nozzle on the end is used. In the West English No Tail Rotor — “without tail screw” is known as NOTAR.
Example: MD 520N; MD 900 Explorer.
The single-screw rotations of blades with the jet principle. Also are called as jet helicopters. Engines are located on blades and on a shaft of the bearing screw is not transferred the strong moments, as in case of an arrangement of engines in the fuselage. Such scheme excludes existence of the jet moment from the bearing screw. There are various versions of this scheme: with installation of direct-flow propulsion jet engines on zakontsovka of blades (actually jet helicopter), or with nozzles on zakontsovka of blades and giving of a hot exhaust on them from the gas-turbine engine (“the drive of a hot cycle”) located in the fuselage, or the compressor drive of “a cold cycle”: the gas-turbine engine gives the compressor in the case of the helicopter, and compressed air from it is brought via pipelines to nozzles on zakontsovka of blades. Several experimental cars with the jet drive were constructed.
Example: helicopter of experimental design bureau Mile of V-7, Hiller YH-32 Hornet
Only the drive of compressor type was used by serially being under construction helicopter. Example: Sud-Ouest SO.1221 “Djinn”.
Twin-screw longitudinal scheme. Compensation of the jet moment happens due to existence of two identical screws rotating to the opposite sides and located in forward and back parts of the fuselage. This scheme call also “the flying car”.
Example: CH-47 Chinook, YAK-24
Twin-screw cross scheme. It is similar previous, but screws are located on farms or wings of the fuselage on each side.
Example: Mi-12 (the largest of ever the flying-up helicopters), Focke Achgelis Fa 223, etc.
Twin-screw coaxial scheme. Compensation of the jet moment happens due to existence of two identical screws rotating to the opposite sides and located on one axis.
Example: majority of helicopters of CB of Kamov
Twin-screw with the crossing planes of rotors. Also are called as sinkhropter. Axes of the rotors rotating to the opposite sides are inclined on the relation to each other, the planes of rotation of rotors are crossed, for an exception of collision of blades their rotation is synchronized.
Example: Kaman HH-43 Huskie.
Multiscrew (helicopter platforms). Compensation happens due to existence of equal number of opposite rotating screws.
Classification of helicopters by take-off weight.
Extralight — helicopters with a take-off weight up to 1000 kg;
Lungs — helicopters with a take-off weight up to 4500 kg;
Averages — helicopters with a take-off weight from 4500 to 13000 kg;
Heavy — helicopters with a take-off weight more than 13000 kg.
Division of average and heavy helicopters differs in Russia and abroad. Therefore some helicopters can be classified in Russia as averages, and abroad — as heavy.
In some cases the additional class of svekhtyazhyoly helicopters can be used (for example: Mi-12 helicopter).
Classification of helicopters to destination.
Civil helicopters can be divided into the following types:
Multi-purpose — are intended for transportation of passengers, freights and performance of various target tasks;
Passenger — are intended for transportation of passengers;
Transport — are intended for transportation of various freights in a cargo cabin and on an external suspension bracket;
Search and rescue — are intended for search, rescue and rendering the emergency help to victims;
Agricultural — are intended dispersions of fertilizers and toxic chemicals for pest control of agricultural cultures;
Helicopters cranes — are intended for transportation of goods on an external suspension bracket and performance of installation and construction works.
Classification of the FAI helicopters.
All helicopters are carried by FAI to the class E-1.
Easy helicopters are in addition divided into subclasses:
E-1a — with a take-off weight up to 500 kg;
E-1b — with a take-off weight from 500 to 1000 kg;
E-1c — with a take-off weight from 1000 to 1750 kg;
E-1d — with a take-off weight from 1750 to 3000 kg;
E-1e — with a take-off weight from 3000 to 4500 kg.
Use of helicopters:
- in armed forces (shift of troops, ammunition and providing, control over operation, communication, investigation, correction of gun-fire, search and destruction of land and air targets, submarines; landing of troops, protection of borders);
- in police operations and operations of special troops;
- in rescue operations;
- at suppression of the fires (The fire helicopter is used with a suspension bracket of Bambi bucket or with tanks for water placed in the fuselage);
- in medicine (urgent delivery of the victim in hospital);
- in commercial transportations (urgent cargo delivery);
- for shootings from air;
- for pest control of crops;
- as a type of public transport (projects — in the 1960th years in the USSR);
- at construction works (in case of construction of constructions of considerable height — belltowers, towers, skyscrapers; in remote mountain conditions; at a lack of the place for construction by means of land means)
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